“Gender confirmation surgeries” are medical interventions that help align a person’s body on a visual and, to some extent, functional level with their gender identity. The following are some of the possible gender-confirming surgeries for trans people: alignment of primary genitals (e.g. vagina, penis), mastectomy (removal of breast tissue), breast augmentation, hysterectomy (removal of the uterus) and facial feminization.
The colloquial expression “sex change” and the former medical term “reassignment surgery” are misleading. They imply that a trans person’s gender changes when they undergo surgery, while these procedures only help align their body to the gender they already had before the operation.